องค์ความรู้

DEVELOPMENT OF OPTIMUM SYNTHESIS METHOD FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION OF PALM OIL METHYL ESTERS AND TRIMETHYLOLPROPANE TO ENVIRONMENTALLY ACCEPTABLE PALM OIL-BASED LUBRICANT

Chemical synthesis of palm oil trimethylolpropane esters was conducted via transesterification of palm oil methyl esters (POME) with trimethylolpropane (TMP). The palm oil TMP esters are potential biodegradable base stock for lubricant production. The influence of the main operating variables, namely, temperatures and pressures, molar ratio of palm methyl esters to TMP, and catalyst amount was studied and analysed. The effects of temperature (80ºC to 140ºC) and reduced pressure (0.1, 10, 50, 100 and 500 mbar) were investigated and found to have a significant impact on the reaction.

An Analysis of Biodiesel Combustion on Diesel Technologies

The 2 set of engine experiments have been conducted to verify the effect of biodiesel blended fuel on diesel combustion for the low pressure diesel direct injection and common-rail direct injection. For low pressure (300 – 500 bar.G), the presence of biodiesel affect to the improvement of fuel ignition quality. While, the common-rail DI, the fuel conversion efficiency and ignition quality could help improving the engine combustion only at low speed high load condition.

EFFECTS OF TRANSESTERIFICATION CONDITIONS ON SYNTHESIS OF TRIMETHYLOLPROPANE ESTERS

 Trimethylolpropane (TMP) esters can be synthesized via catalytic transesterification of TMP with fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) in the base catalyst. This work investigated the catalytic performance of hetero- geneous base catalysts, such as Ca(OH)2 and CaO in the transesterification of TMP with mixed C8-C10 FAME.

A Novel, Low Temperature Synthesis Method of Dimethyl Ether Over Cu–Zn Catalyst Based on Self-Catalysis Effect of Methanol

A new DME synthesis route from syngas at a relatively low temperature (443 K) has been developed for the first time by the combination of a conventional DME synthesis catalyst (Cu/ZnO:HZSM-5 catalyst) with methanol as a catalytic solvent. The addition of methanol to the reaction system is the key to the success of DME synthesis at this temperature. Indeed, a CO conversion of 29 and 43% with a DME selectivity of 69 and 68% were achieved at 443 or 453 K, respectively, and 4 MPa, when methanol was used as a catalytic solvent.

Catalytic Deoxygenation for Upgrading of Leucaena

The aim of this study was to improve the quality of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of Leucaena leucocephala
trunks via catalytic deoxygenation using Pt/Al2O3 (Pt content = 1.32% (w/w)). The minimum
molar ratio of oxygen/carbon (O/C) at 0.14 was achieved when the amount of catalyst was 10% (w/w,
bio-oil) and was applied under 4 bar of initial nitrogen pressure at 340 C for 1 h. The reaction mechanism
of the catalytic deoxygenation, in terms of reforming, water–gas shift and dehydration reactions, was

Biomass Yield, Chemical Composition and Potential Ethanol Yields of 8 Cultivars of Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) Harvested 3-Monthly in Central Thailand

Eight cultivars of napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.), namely Dwarf, Muaklek, Bana, Taiwan A148, Common, Wruk wona, Tifton and Kampheng San, were grown in central Thailand in 2008-2009 and biomass yield, chemical composition and theoretical ethanol yield were measured. Harvests were made every 3 months. Biomass yield and cell wall compositions differed significantly (P < 0.05) among cultivars. Tifton produced the highest annual bio- mass yield at 58.3 t/ha followed by Wruk wona (52.1 t/ha), while the lowest yield of 27.1 t/ha was in Dwarf.

ETHANOL BLEND FUEL PERFORMANCE ON EVAPORATIVE EMISSION OF MOTORCYCLE IN THAILAND

The ethanol blended fuel performance evaluation are performed on motorcycles in Thailand. The evaporative emission from four models of four-stroke motorcycle fuel with E0 , E10 and E20 are tested in this study. The are totally 8 motorcycles; two motorcycles from each selected models, are use for performing the tests. The evaporative emission and tailpipe emission are measured in difference legislation. The emissions from MC model A and C (fuel injection) are measured according to TIS 2350- 2551 (equivalent to 97/24/EC , Euro 3).

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